środa, 17 listopada 2010

UNESCO Science Report 2010

While the USA, Europe and Japan may still be leading the global research and development (R&D) effort, they are increasingly being challenged by emerging economies, especially China. This is one of the findings of the 2010 UNESCO Science Report, which features UIS data on R&D.

The UNESCO Science Report depicts a rapidly changing landscape. While investment in R&D is growing globally (in volume)*, emerging economies are clearly gaining strength in science and technology, according to UIS data. This can be seen especially in terms of Asia’s share of gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD).

Led mainly by China, India and the Republic of Korea, Asia’s share increased from 27 to 32% between 2002 and 2007. Over the same period, the three heavyweights, the European Union, USA and Japan, registered a decrease. In 2002, almost 83% of R&D was carried out in developed countries; by 2007, this share had dropped to 76%. This trend is even clearer when industry’s contribution to GERD is considered. Between 2000 and 2007, the private sector share of R&D spending, as a proportion of GDP, saw a sharp increase in Japan, China, Singapore and especially the Republic of Korea, while it remained stable in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom and even saw a slight decrease in the Russian Federation and the USA, according to UIS data.
The Science Report was written by a team of international experts. It presents an overview of global trends in science and technology, based on a wide range of qualitative and quantitative indicators produced by the UIS and other organizations. It is divided into chapters devoted to the various regions, with spotlights on certain individual countries.
For more information:
Consult the UNESCO portal to download the full report, executive summary, press release and other information available in various languages.

The UIS has prepared three fact sheets on:
•    human resources invested in R&D
•    R&D expenditure
•    women in science.
Consult the UIS Data Centre for the the latest available data on science and technology.
* The share of world GDP devoted to R&D reached 1.7% in 2007, a percentage comparable to that for 2002, but the amount in US dollars rose from US$ 790 billion to US$ 1,146 billion, a growth of 45%. This is slightly greater than the growth in GDP for the same period (43%).